Sunday, January 01, 2006

Point Paper on Why Yes to Liberty Tree Navy Flag, Why NO to Snake flag

POINT PAPER on First Navy Flag on the Ships Commissioned by Commander-in-Chief George Washington

Question: When did the American Navy begin, under what authority, which ship or ships were first commissioned, and what flag was first flown on these Navy ships?

[Description of the Flags shown above will be provided within and at the end of this Point Paper.]

Discussion: The United States Naval Institute Press in 1995 published a book written by Chester G. Hearn titled George Washington’s Schooners (LoC#E271.H43 1995). On page 5, quoted are the orders of the Continental Congress to George Washington,
“to command all the continental forces raised, or to be raised,
for the defense of American liberty.”
Later on the orders continue, “all particulars cannot be foreseen, nor positive instructions for such emergencies so beforehand given…many things must be left to your prudent and discreet management, as occurrences may arise.”

On page 3 are some well worded phrases, “What Washington needed was a navy, but there was none, and the Continental Congress doubted if one would be needed.” “Washington wanted a few fast vessels… And he wanted his schooners mobilized without delay. As Congress labored in chambers, debating the practicality of creating and financing a navy, the general decided the matter for them. He pressed his schooners to sea in the fall of 1775, and prizes began to flow.”

On page 7, “If the British could not be driven out of Boston, perhaps they could be starved out, which meant stopping their flow of supplies. But Washington had a more immediate problem – an urgent need to equip a threadbare army…” “At the same time, Washington wrote reflectively, “A fortunate capture of an ordnance ship would give new life to the camp, and an immediate turn to the issue of this campaign.” “Among the army rank and file Washington observed an abundance of young seamen bemoaning the monotony of duty in the trenches…swatting mosquitoes was no way to fight a war. Give them the open sea. They’d show King George who owned the colonial coast.”

On page 10, “A mind as keen as Washington’s must have appreciated the possibilities of employing his guardsmen in a duty more closely associated with their seafaring skills.”

On page 239, the last words of the Epilogue chapter say: “George Washington, a military man, not only fathered the country. He gave birth to the American Navy.”

The above combined with the Volume 2, page 441 and 442 of the Naval Documents of The American Revolution, for the entry of 13 October 1775, the day considered the birth of the American Navy, begins with “A letter from Genl Washington, dated 5th of Octr, with sundry enclosed papers being recd was read.” One item related to the capture of a vessel in New Hampshire. Naval operations were underway, and Congress followed. George Washington’s leadership created the Navy, then Congress confirmed his efforts.
Chapter 2 describes the problem plagued cruises of the first Navy ship, Hannah. Chapter 3 tells of the Commander in Chief sending two Navy ship captains off to Quebec to support the overland march and attack of Colonel Benedict Arnold, but the captains never complied with Washington’s orders. Washington’s Orders in 1775 had a broad vision for the Navy, to both complete the siege of Boston and to support the campaign in Canada.

Back in June 1775, the Congress had “left to your prudent and discreet management” to the Commander in Chief, or to say another way, authorized Washington to create a Navy if he saw the need. Within three months, he began to transform a gaggle of men and boys into an American Army, and as “father of His country”, Washington also conceived and thereby gave birth to our first Navy ship, and small fleet of ships. Soon after Navy ships authorized by Congress would be commissioned in both Philadelphia and Baltimore.
The Navy ships commissioned in the Boston area were Hannah, Franklin, Hancock, Harrison, Washington, Lee, Lynch, Warren; the ships commissioned in Philadelphia were Alfred and four others, and the ships commissioned in Baltimore were Wasp and Hornet.

Some say that the Navy did not get its beginning until there was a “Navy man” at the helm as Commander in Chief of the Navy and “sailors” not soldiers to man the ships.

The first Navy Commander in Chief was General Esek Hopkins of Rhode Island, brother of Stephen Hopkins in the Congress, who introduced bills for a Navy, and had the Katy become the Providence. In chapter 5 beginning at page 49 is a description of the struggle of fitting out of the ships as Navy war ships due to “price gouging” by local merchants and ship owners. On page 52, Washington’s aide Captain Ephraim Bowen, Jr. was sent out to Plymouth on 13 October to prepare the Navy ships Hancock and Washington.

So on 13 October the Continental Congress ordered two ships to be fitted out as Navy warships, and on the same date, their Commander in Chief ordered two more ships to be fitted out as Navy warships, taking his total number up to five, and Navy wide to seven.

Yet on page 53, is written an interesting, if a bit perplexing, bit of Navy history,
“Disgruntled, Bowen rode to Providence and searched around the harbor. He found several guns in the possession of Gen. Esek Hopkins, who would not, however, part with them without an order from the governor.” [Governor Cooke]
So we see that the “Navy Man” who soon thereafter became the Navy’s first Commander in Chief, was first a General in the state militia of Rhode Island, General Esek Hopkins.

Given that reality, is it not probable that when Hopkins became the Navy’s Commander-in-Chief, he took some of his “soldiers” with seafaring skills with him? Further on page 54 is written: “Moylan, who had been tapping Rhode Island regiments to fill the crew of eighty…” (of the Washington with Martindale as its Captain). So how is this much different than General Washington seeing the soldiers with seafaring skills in the Continental Army, especially in Colonel John Glover’s regiment of seagoing men?

In fact we also have correspondence in 1776 between General Washington and General Hopkins after Hopkins was commissioned by Congress as the Navy Commander-in-Chief to please return the contingent of soldiers that had been “loaned” to the Navy to man the ships. So clearly, the early American Navy was in part manned by American soldiers from Washington’s Army, on the first ship Hannah and other Navy ships to follow.

We also see a relationship of cooperation between the Army and Navy that sets an excellent precedent for joint service cooperation in military operations even today.
So to the part of the Question about the First Navy Flag, on page 19 is a photograph of a model of the Hannah in the U.S. Naval Historical Center that shows the “Washington Cruisers Flag” A flying on the ship. Later, on page 56 is written:
“Lucy Hammet fashioned the flag at the request of Watson, who foresaw a need for Washington’s vessels to be able to identify each other. Reed” (Joseph Reed, Washington’s aide) “liked the idea of a flag consisting of a white background with a green pine tree in the center and the words Appeal to Heaven inscribed below. Coit and Martindale displayed the same flag, but of different materials…”
So in these words and pictures we see that at least three of the first Navy ships flew the Washington Cruiser flag, or Pine Tree flag, or “Evergreen Tree of Liberty Flag” from 2 September 1775 on the Hannah Captain Nicholson Broughton, commanding, to 26 October on the Harrison with Captain William Coit, commanding, and four weeks later on the Washington with Captain Sion Martindale, commanding.

Yet it is fair to ask, “Where began the legend of the Serpent Over Stripes, “Don’t Tread on Me” Rattlesnake Flag?” G (Which if carefully analyzed, is a snake on its belly in retreat, so the words are not so much a warning as a plea PLEASE “don’t tread on me”, and not as in most other military flags, a rattler shown coiled to strike, ready to defend.)
An article by Peter Ansoff in Raven, a “flag study” journal, states in two places that the snake crawling was a depiction of British and European rendering, possibly as an insult.

Most Navy history scholars point to the Gadsden flag of Congressman Christopher Gadsden of South Carolina who was on the committee on Naval affairs that selected Rhode Island’s General Esek Hopkins as the Navy Commander in Chief. The Gadsden Flag is a yellow flag with a coiled rattlesnake, and the motto “Don’t Tread on Me” M.

On the other hand, I have seen no scholars make the connection that the Rhode Island Artillery had white field with a Rattlesnake E, that is also part coiled, and a different motto -- . Of course, the connection is with Rhode Island’s General Esek Hopkins, who became the Commander in Chief of the American Navy. General Washington willingly relinquished that added responsibility after Congress finally decided to organize and finance a Navy, and to commission an officer to lead the Naval forces.

So the coiled Rattler flag of South Carolina M and the South Carolina Navy Flag N, combined with the half coiled Rattler flag of Rhode Island E, combined with the red and white Sons of Liberty flag of Massachusetts D could be a plausible description of the genesis of the flag that currently flies as the United States Navy Jack Flag G. But the historical facts are that the stripes of this Rattler flag varied in color from red and white, to red and blue, red and black, to blue and black or blue and yellow -- no uniformity.

Another couple of points is that the Washington Cruiser Flag A and the Pine Tree Flag H
while names often used interchangeably are in fact two distinct and different flags. The Washington Cruisers Flag or First Navy Flag carries the John Locke motto “Appeal To Heaven”, the Pine Tree Flag or Massachusetts Navy Flag does not have the motto. Also the motto is often seen over the tree, and even as “An Appeal to Heaven” a phrase that does not appear in John Locke’s writing, where “Appeal to Heaven” does three times.

The historical facts are the Washington Cruisers Flag A pre-dated any form or coloration of the Rattlesnake or Serpent Over Stripes flag G used on a Continental Navy ship.
Further Discussion: Recent History of a Revolutionary War flag as the Navy Jack Flag.

From the Naval Historical Center website

The Rattlesnake Jack and the Modern Navy__As part of the commemoration of the bicentennial of the American Revolution, by an instruction dated 1 August 1975 (SECNAV Instruction 10520.3) the Secretary of the Navy [Editor Note: J. William Middendorf, 8 Apr 1974 - 20 Jan 1977, later Ambassador to OAS.] directed the use of the rattlesnake jack in place of the union jack (blue field with white stars) during the period 13 October 1775 (the bicentennial of the legislation that created the Continental Navy, which the Navy recognizes as the Navy's birthday), and 31 December 1976.

By an instruction dated 18 August 1980 (SECNAV Instruction 10520.4), the Secretary of the Navy directed that the commissioned ship in active status having the longest total period in active status to display the rattlesnake jack in place of the union jack until decommissioned or transferred to inactive status.__

By an instruction dated 31 May 2002 (SECNAV Instruction 10520.6), the Secretary of the Navy directed the use of the rattlesnake jack in place of the union jack for the duration of the Global War on Terrorism.

In early November 2004, when preparing to give a speech to the Navy Chaplains Conference, the author of this point paper discovered the Naval Historical Center website where the “Don’t Tread on Me” Rattlesnake flag as the fist Navy flag was challenged. Further research showed that the Washington Cruiser Flag is more accurately credited as being the First Navy Flag. A letter to the present Secretary of the Navy Gordon England and others was sent on 1 December 2004, and a revised version with color photographs sent on 13 April 2005. A follow-up letter to the local Congressman, J. Randy Forbes, resulted in a letter from him to the Secretary of Defense endorsing the change in the Navy Jack Flag. A reply from the CNO Naval History section was received in September. Other letters to the Naval Historical Center and the Secretary of the Navy office were prepared and sent over the next few weeks, as new research was discovered that reaffirmed the Washington Cruisers Flag A as the true First Navy Flag.

On 11 October 2005, the author met with Dr. Michael Crawford, Head of the Early History branch of the Naval Historical Center. He stated that the SECNAV Instruction on the “Don’t Tread on Me” Rattlesnake Flag as the first Navy flag was not checked through them, and so essentially disclaimed any historical accuracy on the instruction.

On the Navy’s 230th Birthday, 13 October 2005 a phone conversation with Ambassador Middendorf, introduced the information that the belief that the “Don’t Tread on Me” Rattlesnake flag was the Navy Jack flag was in error. He cited a number of Navy ships commissioned in Philadelphia, and two ships, the Hornet and the Wasp commissioned in Baltimore, one by a relative, Captain William Stone.

In an email on Oct 21, 2005, at 10:54 AM, Dennis CONRAD, of NAVHISTCEN wrote:
Dear Mr. Manship: We are passing around the office an article that may be of real interest to you. It is entitled "The First Navy Jack," by Peter Ansoff. It is published in Raven: A Journal of Vexillology, Vol. 11 (2004). It certainly calls into question the view that the rattlesnake jack was used by the Continental Navy. Dennis Conrad
That article was received and read on 12 December 2005, and is summarized below.
On 29 November 2005, in a second phone conversation with Ambassador Middendorf, he indicated he had read the First Navy Flag scholarship sent to him. Further, he stated when he signed SECNAV Instruction 10520.3, he accepted the staff work done to have included historical research. The man who served as Secretary of the Navy at the time the Rattlesnake flag was first made effective, Ambassador J. William Middendorf, now believes the 1975 instruction he signed was in error, and should be changed. A follow up phone call on 12 December 2005 discussed an earlier version of this point paper.

On 2 December 2005, in a phone conversation with Dr. Dennis Conrad of the Naval Historical Center, it was indicated that the Naval Historians in the Early History branch were “on board” with the fact that the “Don’t Tread on Me” Rattlesnake flag was NOT the first Navy flag, but that decisions like this were made at a higher level.

So the situation now is that the Naval Historical Center that was the original source of the clue that the current Navy jack flag of the Rattlesnake “Don’t Tread on Me” flag as the first Navy flag is an historical error, appears to agree that the Washington Cruiser flag is the correct choice. It is wise and timely for a change from the “Don’t Tread on Me” Rattlesnake Flag to the Washington Cruisers – Tree of Liberty -- First Navy Flag.

The man most appropriate to change and correct the error is Secretary of the Navy Gordon England in the next few days or weeks while he continues to serve in that post before he is confirmed as the Deputy Secretary of Defense. Secretary England is most appropriate in that he was the man who on 31 May 2002 signed the SECNAV Instruction that ordered the flying of the Rattlesnake – “Don’t Tread on Me” flag which is now generally agreed among scholars to be in error, during the War against tERRORism.

For the Army-Navy football game, recently on Fox News, Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld, a Navy veteran, and Secretary of the Navy England, made sport of the Army mascot mule, talking about notches in the tail that told what work the mule could do. As a clever Navy Captain Public Affairs Officer pointed out, this decision is much like in Football where the referees have an “Instant Replay” to study the details of the play and decide to change their call, so too must the Navy and its leadership run a Replay on the call of the first Navy flag, which is “out of bounds”. Even if this call is far less than instant in its playback, it is time to change the call to reflect the Washington Cruisers Flag as the true First Navy Flag, to be flown on the bowsprit as the Navy Jack

There is an old saying that “A lie can get half way around the world before the Truth can get its boots on.” In this case a lie, or more accurately, an error of the history of our American Navy flag, has flown around the world on the bow of our current American warships. The Rattlesnake flag error was a well meaning error, but an error nonetheless.

Now that the error has been revealed by flag scholars, it is time to do as is said in another old saying, “Now is the time for all good men to come to the aid of their country.” The “aid of their country” is to first serve the Truth, rather than maintain a false legend. We must “raise a standard to which the wise and honest can repair” as Washington said to the delegates at the opening of the Constitutional Convention. Let a new SECNAV Instruction raise the standard of the true First Navy Flag, the Washington Cruisers Flag, which can be fittingly described as the “Evergreen Tree of Liberty Flag”, and forever may Liberty fly in America and all around the world on American Navy ships.

Summary of "The First Navy Jack," by Peter Ansoff. It is published in Raven: A Journal of Vexillology, Vol. 11 (2004). (underline and bold added)

Page 2: “The First Navy Jack (Figure 1)” (Editor Note: Snake Over Stripes flag) “is a well-established part of American lore.” (Editor Note: More accurate than “well-established” would be to say “widely accepted” part of American lore.) … It has been an icon of the United States Navy since 1975-76, when all ships flew it to commemorate the bicentennial of the Navy and the United States…. The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 increased the popularity of the “rattlesnake and stripes” as a defiant symbol of national unity and resolve, both in the Navy and among the general public.”

“In fact, however, there is little evidence that his flag was flown by Commodore Hopkins in 1775, or that it even existed during the American Revolution.”

Page 9: Under the header “The Flags in the Thomas Hart Portrait”
“It appears that the naval historian Samuel Eliot Morison was correct when he made this comment: The mezzotint portrait of Esek Hopkins published in England… is a work of imagination by someone who never saw Hopkins or his ships… the flags are fantastic.”29

Page 10: “Third, 18th-century British and European illustrators often used the stretched-out “crawling rattlesnake” as a symbol of the American revolutionary cause, whereas there is no other known evidence that it was ever used on American flags.”35

Page 10: “In summary, the evidence strongly suggests that the striped rattlesnake flag depicted in the Hart engraving was not a realistic depiction of an American naval flag, any more than the palm tree in his Arnold portrait accurately depicted the flora of Canada.”

Page 12: “Nevertheless, the Hart image of Hopkins and its many descendants are standard illustrations in books and websites dealing with the Continental Navy and the Revolutionary War. 43 Generations of flag historians have assumed them to be authentic, and have built upon them a legend of the First Navy Jack –
an historic flag that never was.”

The legend of the Snake Over Stripes was step by step furthered by several books:
1830 Biography of John Paul Jones by Robert Sands
1839 History of the Navy of the United States of America by James Fenimore Cooper
1850 Pictorial Field-Book of the Revolution by Benson Lossing
1864 The History of our Flag by Ferdinand Sarmiento
1872 History of the Flag of the United States of America by RADM George Preble
1880 The Flag of the United States and Other National Flags by RADM George Preble
In his 1880 book Admiral Preble tried to correct his previous error in the 1872 book about the existence of the Snake Over Stripes flag. But the snake flag myth survived!
Page 20: Dr. Whitney Smith, founder and director of the Flag Research Center, has said of Preble’s work:
“…Original research is time-consuming and demanding and it’s easy to assume that published sources are correct and can be trusted. Those who have written books and articles or have created web sites about American flags have for the most part relied on work done by Preble. As a result there is a constant repetition of misinformation that gives certain designs the impression of accuracy.” 64
War for Independence Flags discussion:
A – First Navy Flag, the Washington Cruisers Flag, of 2 September 1775 on the Hannah, the first ship commissioned. The Navy ship Washington was captured on 5 December 1775, and later Hugh Pellasier in described this flag to Lord Sandwich. Flag scholar Peter Ansoff relates the capture is somewhat a blessing because the letter records the flag’s appearance.
B – The Buck Flag, unique in that Washington and Hancock gave it to the first entirely black regiment (most units were integrated and 1 in 7 soldiers in the Army were black.) Note this flag combines elements of A or H, an Evergreen Tree of Liberty (if yet in a different shape) with a variation of C, the Washington Headquarters flag field of thirteen stars.
C – The Washington Headquarters Flag, a field of blue with 13 white stars for the 13 colonies, soon to be states, unique in the stars are six point stars, not five as on the later “Betsy Ross” Flag.
D – The Sons of Liberty Flag (note red-white-red of D versus the white-red-white stripes of G)
E – The Rhode Island Artillery Flag (of 1826) shows a coiled rattlesnake, and we learn that the first Navy Commander in Chief was General Esek Hopkins of Rhode Island, and that he had cannon in his possession in October 1775 when Washington’s agent Bowen was trying to outfit the Navy ships Hancock and Washington. Compare to Gadsden Flag with his flag M, and South Carolina Navy flag N. Question is to learn if there was a circa 1775 flag of this design?
F - The Culpepper Minutemen flag with immortal words of Patrick Henry, “Liberty or Death”.
G - Like a current Navy Jack Flag, appears to be a combination of the South Carolina Navy Flag N, and the Sons of Liberty Flag D. Scholars generally agree that is was NOT the first Navy flag, and question if the current combination of flag elements ever flew over a Continental Navy ship.
H – The “Pine Tree Flag”, and in April 1776 to today as prescribed in the Commonwealth’s Constitution, the Massachusetts Navy Flag. It is without the “Appeal To Heaven” motto.
I – The “Continental Flag” that according to painter Trumbull flew at the Battle of Bunker Hill. While he was near at the time of the battle, scholars note that Trumbull added elements to his paintings to make them more dramatic, so the historical accuracy of this flag or any flag is in question. However, the canton of this flag is the Pine Tree Flag H, and often our normal Navy Jack Flag is the Union Jack or the field of blue with white stars from our Red, White and Blue, Stripes and Stars, or as we now say “Stars and Stripes” flag, or “Old Glory” American Flag.
J – The “Grand Union Flag” of 1 January 1776 that was raised by First Lieutenant John Paul Jones on the Navy ship Alfred. It combines Loyalty to Britain with the Canton being the British Flag, with the Sons of Liberty red and white stripes. Due to the Canton being the British flag, a different flag for the American Navy Jack flag would need to be created to reduce confusion.
K – The American Flag of 14 June 1777 (Flag Day), generally known as the “Betsy Ross Flag”. It combines the Sons of Liberty Flag with a derivative of the Washington Headquarters flag, a blue field with stars, with five versus six pointed stars and in this flag arranged in a circle. Other American flags of the time did not use the circle design, except the Rhode Island “rattler” flag E.
L – Proctors Regiment Flag of Westmoreland County Pennsylvania shows a coiled rattlesnake. It is notable in that the snake is facing the British Union Jack that is positioned on the outer edge of the flag, known as “on the fly”, where a dual meaning of “on the fly” means “in retreat”.
M – The Gadsden Flag of Congressman Christopher Gadsden of South Carolina who was on the Committee of Congress that selected General Esek Hopkins of Rhode Island as the first Navy Commander in Chief. It is reported by some writers that this flag flew on the Alfred, the flag ship of Commander in Chief Hopkins, but there is not strong verification. On the other hand, an illustration shows the Washington Cruiser Flag A flew on the Alfred, but again there is no strong verification of this illustration.
N – The South Carolina Navy Flag as much the form of the current Navy Jack G, only with red and blue stripes rather than red and white stripes. The position of the motto “Don’t Tread on Me” is also above the rattlesnake in this flag, rather than below as in the modern day derivative.

About the author: A member of the Mount Vernon Board of Visitors, LCDR James Renwick Manship, USNR is an historian who focuses on the War for Independence, the Miracle in Philadelphia called this Constitution for the United States of America, and George Washington, so he writes and speaks on these topics in schools and meeting halls all across America.
War for Independence Flags links to images on various web pages:

(Note: Links are for image reference only, in some cases the text that accompanies the image is based on popular historical opinion rather than the facts of history, so “buyers beware”, yet often there are attractive websites with most information being accurate, and worthy of reading.)

A – First Navy Flag, the Washington Cruisers Flag first flown 2 September 1775

B – The Buck Flag,^bk.html

C – The Washington Headquarters Flag.

D – The Sons of Liberty Flag (note red-white-red of D versus the white-red-white stripes of G)

E – The Rhode Island Artillery Flag
(not easy to find 38. Rhode Island Artillery – 1826; so NOT American Revolution as seen here.)

F - The Culpepper Minutemen Flag.

G - Like a current Navy Jack Flag

H – The “Pine Tree Flag”, and in April 1776 to today as prescribed in the Commonwealth’s Constitution, the Massachusetts Navy Flag. It is without the “Appeal To Heaven” motto.

I – The “Continental Flag” at the Battle of Bunker Hill, per painter Trumbull.

J – The “Grand Union Flag” of 1 January

K – The American Flag of 14 June 1777 (Flag Day), the “Betsy Ross Flag”.

L – Proctors Regiment Flag of Westmoreland County Pennsylvania

M – The Gadsden Flag

N – The South Carolina Navy Flag

22 February 2006


From: Secretary of the Navy
To: All Ships and Stations (less Marine Corps field
addresses not having Navy personnel attached.)


Ref: (a) U.S. Navy Regulations, 1990

1. Purpose. To provide for the display of our First Navy Flag, the Evergreen Tree of Liberty “Appeal
To Heaven” flag as the navy jack on board all U.S. Navy ships during Global War on Terrorism.

2. Discussion. After being elected by Continental Congress as General and the Commander-in-Chief of American forces in June 1775, George Washington assumed command in Cambridge, Massachusetts in July 1775. In August 1775, British loyalists chopped down the Liberty Tree in Boston where the Sons of Liberty met so when on 2 September 1775 Washington commissioned the first ship for the American Navy, the sloop Hannah; the flag flown by the first Navy ships was the “Pine Tree Flag” also called the “Washington Cruisers Flag”. Our First Navy Flag is a pure white flag with an Evergreen Tree, a Tree of Liberty, where under the tree is inscribed the continuing imperative motto from John Locke --“Appeal To Heaven”. On 13 October 1775, Congress ended their debate on the question of a Navy when they learned their Commander-in-Chief Washington had already commissioned a fleet of ships - giving birth to the American Navy - so Congress ordered two more ships. A positive turning point in the war for Liberty was the amphibious landing before the Battle of Trenton on Christmas night, 25 December 1776. As a boy, Washington was a day away from being a Midshipman in the British Navy. He received his military training from his older brother Lawrence who was a “Marine” as the leader of the Virginia militia in an amphibious landing in South America when serving under British Admiral Edward Vernon, for whom Lawrence named Mount Vernon. George Washington respected the value of a Navy, Marines, and Army and wisely employed Naval forces throughout the entire War for Independence. He saw the need for a Navy to intercept British supply ships both to make the Siege of Boston effective, and to provide the American forces gunpowder and other supplies. This Tree of Liberty First Navy Flag serves as an historic reminder of our Navy’s creation, our duty to our Country to defend this Constitution for the United States of America, with the Liberty it secures for America, and for the entire world in the Global War for Liberty over Terrorism.

3. Action. The Evergreen Tree of Liberty First Navy Flag as the navy jack will be displayed on board all U.S. Navy ships in lieu of the Union Jack, in accordance with sections 1259 and 1264 of reference (a). The display of the First Navy Flag as the navy jack is an authorized exception to section 1258 of reference (a). Ships and craft of the Navy authorized to fly the First Navy Flag as the navy jack will receive an issue of four flags per ship through a special distribution.

Donald C. Winter

SNDL Parts 1 and 2

No comments: